Similarly, a successor employer must not simply refuse recognition of the union for bargaining purposes. Instead, the courts have asked employers to recognize the existing union if there is “substantial continuity” between the two employers (NLRB v. Burns Security Service, 406 U.S. 272, 92 at ct. 1571, 32 L. Ed. 2d 61 ). In order to determine whether there is essential continuity, the courts will consider, among other things, whether both employers operate in the same enterprise, whether the workers of both employers essentially perform similar tasks, whether the customer base remains broadly the same, and whether the successor employer continues to use the same industrial or commercial processes as its predecessor (Frye v. Specialty Envelope, 10 F.3d 1221 [6 cir. 1993]). The United States recognizes collective agreements    In the Common Law, Ford vs. A.U.E.F.
, the courts once decided that collective agreements were not binding. Second, the Industrial Relations Act of 1971, introduced by Robert Carr (Minister of Labour in Edward Heath`s cabinet), provided that collective agreements were binding, unless a written contractual clause explained otherwise. After the death of the Heath government, the law was rescinded to reflect the tradition of the UK`s labour relations policy of legally refraining from workplace disputes. Workers are not required to join a union on a given job. However, most sectors of activity with an average trade union organization of 70% are subject to a collective agreement. An agreement does not prohibit higher wages and better social benefits, but sets a legal minimum, much like a minimum wage. In addition, a national agreement on income policy is often, but not always, reached, including all trade unions, employers` organisations and the Finnish government.  The union can negotiate with a single employer (which usually represents the shareholders of a company) or, depending on the country, negotiate with a group of companies to reach a sectoral agreement. A collective agreement is a contract of employment between an employer and one or more unions.
Collective bargaining consists of the process of negotiation between representatives of a trade union and employers (usually represented by management or, in some countries such as Austria, Sweden and the Netherlands, by an employers` organisation) on workers` conditions of employment, such as wages, working hours, working conditions, complaint procedures and the rights and obligations of trade unions. The parties often refer to the outcome of negotiations as a collective agreement (CBA) or a comprehensive employment contract (CBA). In 1931, the Supreme Court was appointed in Texas &N.O.R. Co. v. The Brotherhood of Railway Clerks upheld the law`s prohibition on employers interfering in the choice of negotiators.  In 1962, President Kennedy signed an executive order granting public employee unions the right to negotiate with federal authorities.  In Sweden, the scope of collective agreements is very high, although there are no legal mechanisms to extend agreements to entire sectors. In 2018, 83% of all private sector employees were covered by collective agreements, 100% of public sector employees and 90% in total (across the labour market).
 This reflects the predominance of self-regulation (regulation by the labour market parties themselves) over government regulation in Swedish industrial relations.  While most decisions made by an employer concern workers, not all bargaining matters are mandatory. Some decisions, such as advertising and product choice, are so indirect in relation to the employment relationship and have such a small effect on the fact that they are almost certainly just generous subjects of negotiation. . . .